The jacket the very sturdy subject wore was more fashionable circa 1800-1820 and certainly not in style when he posed for his portrait circa 1849-1850. I believe those were straight pins stuck through his jacket cuff! Casey removed very old if not original paper seals. All the patina and white U-shaped (for the most part) marks were from the aging process. What a great stolid character! I love looking at his remarkable raw hide hands. The sixth plate comes with a nice whole leather case and an unmarked red silk pad inside.